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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Juil - 17:25 (2017)    Sujet du message: Serbia Social Security System Policies Laws And Regulatio Répondre en citant


Serbia Social Security System, Policies, Laws and Regulations Handbook: Strategic Information and Basic Laws (World Business and Investment Library)
by International Business Publications



->>>DOWNLOAD BOOK Serbia Social Security System, Policies, Laws and Regulations Handbook: Strategic Information and Basic Laws (World Business and Investment Library)
















The..communists..under..Vladimir..LENIN..seized..power..soon..after..and..formed..the..USSRGovernment..type:..parliamentary..republic..Capital:..name:..Belgrade..(Beograd)..geographic..coordinates:..44..50..N,..20..30..E..time..difference:..UTC+1..(6..hours..ahead..of..Washington,..DC,..during..Standard..Time)..daylight..saving..time:..+1hr,..begins..last..Sunday..in..March;..ends..last..Sunday..in..October..Administrative..divisions:..119..municipalities..(opstine,..singular..-..opstina)..and..26..cities..(gradovi,..singular..-..grad)..municipalities:..Ada*,..Aleksandrovac,..Aleksinac,..Alibunar*,..Apatin*,..Arandelovac,..Arilje,..Babusnica,..Bac*,..Backa..Palanka*,..Backa..Topola*,..Backi..Petrovac*,..Bajina..Basta,..Batocina,..Becej*,..Bela..Crkva*,..Bela..Palanka,..Beocin*,..Blace,..Bogatic,..Bojnik,..Boljevac,..Bor,..Bosilegrad,..Brus,..Bujanovac,..Cajetina,..Cicevac,..Coka*,..Crna..Trava,..Cuprija,..Despotovac,..Dimitrov,..Doljevac,..Gadzin..Han,..Golubac,..Gornji..Milanovac,..Indija*,..Irig*,..Ivanjica,..Kanjiza*,..Kladovo,..Knic,..Knjazevac,..Koceljeva,..Kosjeric,..Kovacica*,..Kovin*,..Krupanj,..Kucevo,..Kula*,..Kursumlija,..Lajkovac,..Lapovo,..Lebane,..Ljig,..Ljubovija,..Lucani,..Majdanpek,..Mali..Idos*,..Mali..Zvornik,..Malo..Crnice,..Medveda,..Merosina,..Mionica,..Negotin,..Nova..Crnja*,..Nova..Varos,..Novi..Becej*,..Novi..Knezevac*,..Odzaci*,..Opovo*,..Osecina,..Paracin,..Pecinci*,..Petrovac..na..Mlavi,..Plandiste*,..Pozega,..Presevo,..Priboj,..Prijepolje,..Prokuplje,..Raca,..Raska,..Razanj,..Rekovac,..Ruma*,..Secanj*,..Senta*,..Sid*,..Sjenica,..Smederevska..Palanka,..Sokobanja,..Srbobran*,..Sremski..Karlovci*,..Stara..Pazova*,..Surdulica,..Svilajnac,..Svrljig,..Temerin*,..Titel*,..Topola,..Trgoviste,..Trstenik,..Tutin,..Ub,..Varvarin,..Velika..Plana,..Veliko..Gradiste,..Vladicin..Han,..Vladimirci,..Vlasotince,..Vrbas*,..Vrnjacka..Banja,..Zabalj*,..Zabari,..Zagubica,..Zitiste*,..Zitorada..cities:..Beograd,..Cacak,..Jagodina,..Kikinda*,..Kragujevac,..Kraljevo,..Krusevac,..Leskovac,..Loznica,..Nis,..Novi..Pazar,..Novi..Sad*,..Pancevo*,..Pirot,..Pozarevac,..Sabac,..Smederevo,..Sombor*,..Sremska..Mitrovica*,..Subotica*,..Uzice,..Valjevo,..Vranje,..Vrsac,..Zajecar,..Zrenjanin*..note:..the..northern..39..municipalities..and..6..cities..-..about..28%..of..Serbia's..area..-..compose..the..Autonomous..Province..of..Vojvodina..and..are..indicated..with..*..Independence:..5..June..2006..(from..the..State..Union..of..Serbia..and..Montenegro)..National..holiday:..National..Day..(Statehood..Day),..15..February..(1835),..the..day..the..first..constitution..of..the..country..was..adopted..Constitution:..history:..many..previous;..latest..adopted..30..September..2006,..approved..by..referendum..28-29..October..2006,..effective..8..November..2006..amendments:..proposed..by..at..least..one-third..of..deputies..in..the..National..Assembly,..by..the..president..of..the..republic,..by..the..government,..or..by..petition..of..at..least..150,000..voters;..passage..of..proposals..and..draft..amendments..each..requires..at..least..two-thirds..majority..vote..in..the..Assembly;..amendments..to..constitutional..articles..including..the..preamble,..constitutional..principles,..and..human..and..minority..rights..and..freedoms..also..require..a..referendum..with..passage..by..simple..majority..vote..(2016)..Legal..system:..civil..law..system..International..law..organization..participation:..has..not..submitted..an..ICJ..jurisdiction..declaration;..accepts..ICCt..jurisdiction..Citizenship:..citizenship..by..birth:..no..citizenship..by..descent..only:..at..least..one..parent..must..be..a..citizen..of..Serbia..dual..citizenship..recognized:..yes..residency..requirement..for..naturalization:..3..years..Suffrage:..18..years..of..age,..16..if..employed;..universal..Executive..branch:..chief..of..state:..President..Aleksandar..VUCIC..(since..31..May..2017)..head..of..government:..Prime..Minister..Ana..BRNABIC..(since..29..June..2017)..cabinet:..Cabinet..elected..by..the..National..Assembly..elections/appointments:..president..directly..elected..by..absolute..majority..popular..vote..in..2..rounds..if..needed..for..a..5-year..term..(eligible..for..a..second..term);..election..last..held..on..2..April..2017..(next..to..be..held..in..2022);..prime..minister..elected..by..the..National..Assembly..election..results:..Aleksandar..VUCIC..elected..president;..percent..of..vote..-..Aleksandar..VUCIC..(SNS)..55.1%,..Sasa..JANKOVIC..(independent)..16.4%,..Luka..MAKSIMOVIC..(independent)..9.4%,..Vuk..JEREMIC..(independent)..5.7%,..Vojislav..SESELJ..(SRS)..4.5%,..Bosko..OBRADOVIC..(Dveri)..2.3%,..other..5.0%,..invalid/blank..1.6%..Legislative..branch:..description:..unicameral..National..Assembly..or..Narodna..Skupstina..(250..seats;..members..directly..elected..in..a..single..nationwide..constituency..by..party..list..proportional..representation..vote..to..serve..4-year..terms)..elections:..last..held..on..24..April..2016..(next..to..be..held..by..April..2020)..election..results:..percent..of..vote..by..party/coalition..-..Serbia..is..Winning..48.2%,..SPS-JS-ZS-KP..11.0%,..SRS..8.1%,..For..a..Just..Serbia..6.0%,..Enough..is..Enough..6.0%,..Alliance..for..a..Better..Serbia..5.0%,..Dveri-DSS..5.0%,..SVM..1.5%,..other..9.2%;..seats..by..party/coalition..Serbia..is..Winning..131,..SPS-JS-ZS-KP..29,..SRS..22,..For..a..Just..Serbia..16,..Enough..is..Enough..16,..Alliance..for..a..Better..Serbia..13,..Dveri-DSS..13,..SVM..4,..other..6..Judicial..branch:..highest..court(s):..Supreme..Court..of..Cassation..(consists..of..more..than..60..judges..organized..into..3-..and..5-member..panels..for..criminal,..civil,..and..administrative..cases);..Constitutional..Court..(consists..of..15..judges)..judge..selection..and..term..of..office:..Supreme..Court..justices..proposed..by..the..High..Judicial..Council..(HJC),..an..11-member..body..of..which..7..are..judges,..and..elected..by..the..National..Assembly;..Constitutional..Court..judges..appointed..-..5..each..by..the..National..Assembly,..the..president,..and..the..Supreme..Court..of..Cassation;..judges..of..both..courts..appointed..to..permanent..tenure..by..the..HJC..subordinate..courts:..appellate..courts,..higher..courts,..and..municipal..and..district..courts;..courts..of..special..jurisdiction..include..the..Administrative..Court,..Appellate..Commercial..Court,..and..2..levels..of..misdemeanor..courts..note:..in..2003,..specialized..panels..on..war..crimes..were..established..within..the..Serbian..court..system;..the..panels..have..jurisdiction..over..alleged..violations..of..the..Basic..Criminal..Code..and..crimes..against..humanity,..international..law,..and..criminal..acts..as..defined..by..the..Statute..of..the..International..Criminal..Tribunal..for..the..former..Yugoslavia..Political..parties..and..leaders:..Alliance..for..a..Better..Serbia..-..coalition..includes..LDP,..LSV,..SDS..Alliance..of..Vojvodina..Hungarians..or..SVM..[Istvan..PASZTOR]..Communist..Party..or..KP..[Josip..Joska..BROZ]..Democratic..Alliance..of..Croats..in..Vojvodina..[Petar..KUNTIC]..Democratic..Party..or..DS..[Dragan..SUTANOVAC]..Democratic..Party..of..Serbia..or..DSS..[Milos..Jovanovic]..Dveri..[Bosko..OBRADOVIC]..Enough..of..Enough..[Sasa..RADULOVIC]..For..a..Just..Serbia..-..coalition..includes..DS,..NS,..RS,..DSVH,..VVS,..Together..for..Sumadija..Greens..of..Serbia..or..ZS..[Ivan..KARIC]..League..of..Social..Democrats..of..Vojvodina..or..LSV..[Nenad..CANAK]..Liberal..Democratic..Party..or..LDP..[Cedomir..JOVANOVIC]..Movement..of..Socialists..or..PS..[Aleksandar..VULIN]..New..Serbia..or..NS..[Velimir..ILIC]..Party..for..Democratic..Action..or..PDD..[Riza..HALIMI]..Party..of..Democratic..Action..of..the..Sandzak..or..SDA..[Sulejman..UGLJANIN]..Party..of..United..Pensioners..of..Serbia..or..PUPS..[Milan..KRKOBABIC]..Reformist..Party..or..RS..[Aleksandar..VISNJIC]..Serbia..is..Winning..-..coalition..includes..SNS,..SDPS,..PUPS,..NS,..SPO,..PS,..PSS,..NDSS,..SNP..Serbian..People's..Party..or..SNP..[Nenad..POPOVIC]..Serbian..Progressive..Party..or..SNS..[Aleksandar..VUCIC]..Serbian..Radical..Party..or..SRS..[Vojislav..SESELJ]..Serbian..Renewal..Movement..or..SPO..[Vuk..DRASKOVIC]..Social..Democratic..Party..or..SDS..[Boris..TADIC]..Social..Democratic..Party..of..Serbia..or..SDPS..[Rasim..LJAJIC]..Socialist..Party..of..Serbia..or..SPS..[Ivica..DACIC]..Strength..of..Serbia..or..PSS..[Bogoljub..KARIC]..Together..for..Serbia..or..ZZS..[Dusan..PETROVIC]..Together..for..Sumadija..[Veroljub..STEVANOVIC]..note:..as..of..April..2016,..Serbia..had..111..registered..political..parties..and..citizens'..associations..Political..pressure..groups..and..leaders:..Independent..Association..of..Journalists..of..Serbia..or..NUNS..Journalists..Association..of..Serbia..(Udruzenje..novinara..Srbije)..or..UNS..Obraz..(Orthodox..clero-fascist..organization)..SNP..1389..(Serbian..nationalist..movement)..SNP..NASI..1389..(Serbian..National..Movement..NASI)..Eastern..Alternative..(pro-Russian..association)..International..organization..participation:..BIS,..BSEC,..CD,..CE,..CEI,..EAPC,..EBRD,..EU..(candidate..country),..FAO,..G-9,..IAEA,..IBRD,..ICAO,..ICC..(national..committees),..ICCt,..ICRM,..IDA,..IFC,..IFRCS,..IHO,..ILO,..IMF,..IMO,..IMSO,..Interpol,..IOC,..IOM,..IPU,..ISO,..ITSO,..ITU,..ITUC..(NGOs),..MIGA,..MONUSCO,..NAM..(observer),..NSG,..OAS..(observer),..OIF..(observer),..OPCW,..OSCE,..PCA,..PFP,..SELEC,..UN,..UNCTAD,..UNESCO,..UNFICYP,..UNHCR,..UNIDO,..UNIFIL,..UNMIL,..UNOCI,..UNTSO,..UNWTO,..UPU,..WCO,..WHO,..WIPO,..WMO,..WTO..(observer)..Diplomatic..representation..in..the..US:..chief..of..mission:..Ambassador..Djerdj..MATKOVIC..(since..23..February..2015)..chancery:..2233..Wisconsin..Ave..NW..telephone:..[1]..(202)..332-0333..FAX:..[1]..(202)..332-3933..consulate(s)..general:..Chicago,..New..York..Diplomatic..representation..from..the..US:..chief..of..mission:..Ambassador..Kyle..SCOTT..(since..4..February..2016)..embassy:..92..Bulevar..kneza..Aleksandra..Karadjordjevica,..11040..Belgrade,..Serbia..mailing..address:..5070..Belgrade..Place,..Washington,..DC..20521-5070..telephone:..[381]..(11)..706-4000..FAX:..[381]..(11)..706-4005..Flag..description:..three..equal..horizontal..stripes..of..red..(top),..blue,..and..white..-..the..Pan-Slav..colors..representing..freedom..and..revolutionary..ideals;..charged..with..the..coat..of..arms..of..Serbia..shifted..slightly..to..the..hoist..side;..the..principal..field..of..the..coat..of..arms..represents..the..Serbian..state..and..displays..a..white..two-headed..eagle..on..a..red..shield;..a..smaller..red..shield..on..the..eagle..represents..the..Serbian..nation,..and..is..divided..into..four..quarters..by..a..white..cross;..interpretations..vary..as..to..the..meaning..and..origin..of..the..white,..curved..symbols..resembling..firesteels..or..Cyrillic.."C's"..in..each..quarter;..a..royal..crown..surmounts..the..coat..of..arms..note:..the..Pan-Slav..colors..were..inspired..by..the..19th-century..flag..of..Russia..National..symbol(s):..double-headed..eagle;..national..colors:..red,..blue,..white..National..anthem:..name:.."Boze..pravde"..(God..of..Justice)..lyrics/music:..Jovan..DORDEVIC/Davorin..JENKO..note:..adopted..1904;..song..originally..written..as..part..of..a..play..in..1872..and..has..been..used..as..an..anthem..by..the..Serbian..people..throughout..the..20th..and..21st..centuries..GDP...(purchasing...power...parity):...$101.8...billion...(2016...est.)...$99.05...billion...(2015...est.)...$98.26...billion...(2014...est.)...note:...data...are...in...2016...dollars...country...comparison...to...the...world:...83...GDP...(official...exchange...rate):...$37.53...billion...(2016...est.)...GDP...-...real...growth...rate:...2.8%...(2016...est.)...0.8%...(2015...est.)...-1.8%...(2014...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...102...GDP...-...per...capita...(PPP):...$14,200...(2016...est.)...$13,900...(2015...est.)...$13,800...(2014...est.)...note:...data...are...in...2016...dollars...country...comparison...to...the...world:...114...Gross...national...saving:...25%...of...GDP...(2016...est.)...23%...of...GDP...(2015...est.)...22.8%...of...GDP...(2014...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...50...GDP...-...composition,...by...end...use:...household...consumption:...73.1%...government...consumption:...16.2%...investment...in...fixed...capital:...17.8%...investment...in...inventories:...0.2%...exports...of...goods...and...services:...50.9%...imports...of...goods...and...services:...-58.2%...(2016...est.)...GDP...-...composition,...by...sector...of...origin:...agriculture:...9.7%...industry:...42.7%...services:...47.6%...(2016...est.)...Agriculture...-...products:...wheat,...maize,...sunflower,...sugar...beets,...grapes/wine,...fruits...(raspberries,...apples,...sour...cherries),...vegetables...(tomatoes,...peppers,...potatoes),...beef,...pork,...and...meat...products,...milk...and...dairy...products...Industries:...automobiles,...base...metals,...furniture,...food...processing,...machinery,...chemicals,...sugar,...tires,...clothes,...pharmaceuticals...Industrial...production...growth...rate:...4.7%...(2016...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...35...Labor...force:...3.141...million...(2016...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...102...Labor...force...-...by...occupation:...agriculture:...17.8%...industry:...25.6%...services:...56.6%...(2016...est.)...Unemployment...rate:...13.8%...(2016...est.)...17.9%...(2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...155...Population...below...poverty...line:...8.9%...(2014...est.)...Distribution...of...family...income...-...Gini...index:...38.7...(2014...est.)...28.2...(2008...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...70...Budget:...revenues:...$15.75...billion...expenditures:...$16.24...billion...note:...this...is...the...consolidated...budget,...including...both...central...government...and...local...goverment...budgets...(2016...est.)...Taxes...and...other...revenues:...42%...of...GDP...(2016...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...34...Budget...surplus...(+)...or...deficit...(-):...-1.3%...of...GDP...(2016...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...64...Public...debt:...72.9%...of...GDP...(2016...est.)...74.7%...of...GDP...(2015...est.)...note:...data...cover...general...government...debt,...and...includes...debt...instruments...issued...or...owned...by...government...entities...other...than...the...treasury...(for...which...the...Government...of...Singapore...issued...guarantees);...the...data...include...treasury...debt...held...by...foreign...entities;...the...data...include...debt...issued...by...subnational...entities...(for...which...the...GOS...also...issued...guarantees),...as...well...as...intra-governmental...debt;...intra-governmental...debt...consists...of...treasury...borrowings...from...surpluses...in...the...social...funds,...such...as...for...retirement,...medical...care,...and...unemployment,...debt...instruments...for...the...social...funds...are...not...sold...at...public...auctions...country...comparison...to...the...world:...41...Inflation...rate...(consumer...prices):...1.6%...(2016...est.)...1.5%...(2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...94...Central...bank...discount...rate:...4%...(31...December...2016)...7.5%...(12...March...2015)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...96...Commercial...bank...prime...lending...rate:...6.29%...(31...December...2016...est.)...7.4%...(31...December...2016...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...121...Stock...of...narrow...money:...$5.195...billion...(31...December...2016...est.)...$4.486...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...98...Stock...of...broad...money:...$18.78...billion...(31...December...2016...est.)...$17.58...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...92...Stock...of...domestic...credit:...$17.06...billion...(30...September...2016...est.)...$16.22...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...91...Market...value...of...publicly...traded...shares:...$5.064...billion...(31...December...2016...est.)...$5.841...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...$4.525...billion...(31...December...2014...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...86...Current...account...balance:...-$1.516...billion...(2016...est.)...-$1.751...billion...(2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...141...Exports:...$14.89...billion...(2016...est.)...$13.36...billion...(2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...72...Exports...-...commodities:...automobiles,...iron...and...steel,...rubber,...clothes,...wheat,...fruit...and...vegetables,...nonferrous...metals,...electric...appliances,...metal...products,...weapons...and...ammunition...Exports...-...partners:...Italy...16.2%,...Germany...12.6%,...Bosnia...and...Herzegovina...8.7%,...Romania...5.6%,...Russia...5.4%...(2015)...Imports:...$19.26...billion...(2016...est.)...$18.21...billion...(2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...72...Imports...-...commodities:...machinery...and...transport...equipment,...fuels...and...lubricants,...manufactured...goods,...chemicals,...food...and...live...animals,...raw...materials...Imports...-...partners:...Germany...12.4%,...Italy...10.6%,...Russia...9.6%,...China...8.5%,...Hungary...4.8%,...Poland...4.2%...(2015)...Reserves...of...foreign...exchange...and...gold:...$12.94...billion...(31...December...2016...est.)...$12.99...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...70...Debt...-...external:...$28.23...billion...(31...December...2016...est.)...$28.86...billion...(31...December...2015...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...78...Stock...of...direct...foreign...investment...-...at...home:...$28.33...billion...(31...December...2009...est.)...$11.95...billion...(2006...est.)...country...comparison...to...the...world:...69...Stock...of...direct...foreign...investment...-...abroad:...$NA...Exchange...rates:...Serbian...dinars...(RSD)...per...US...dollar...-...112.4...(2016...est.)...108.811...(2015...est.)...108.811...(2014...est.)...88.405...(2013...est.)...87.99...(2012...est.)...4,835....m),....which....erupted....in....2007....and....2010,....is....Kamchatka's....most....active....volcano;....Avachinsky....and....Koryaksky....volcanoes,....which....pose....a....threat....to....the....city....of....Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky,....have....been....deemed....Decade....Volcanoes....by....the....International....Association....of....Volcanology....and....Chemistry....of....the....Earth's....Interior,....worthy....of....study....due....to....their....explosive....history....and....close....proximity....to....human....populations;....other....notable....historically....active....volcanoes....include....Bezymianny,....Chikurachki,....Ebeko,....Gorely,....Grozny,....Karymsky,....Ketoi,....Kronotsky,....Ksudach,....Medvezhia,....Mutnovsky,....Sarychev....Peak,....Shiveluch,....Tiatia,....Tolbachik,....and....Zheltovsky....Environment....-....current....issues:....air....pollution....from....heavy....industry,....emissions....of....coal-fired....electric....plants,....and....transportation....in....major....cities;....industrial,....municipal,....and....agricultural....pollution....of....inland....waterways....and....seacoasts;....deforestation;....soil....erosion;....soil....contamination....from....improper....application....of....agricultural....chemicals;....scattered....areas....of....sometimes....intense....radioactive....contamination;....groundwater....contamination....from....toxic....waste;....urban....solid....waste....management;....abandoned....stocks....of....obsolete....pesticides....Environment....-....international....agreements:....party....to:....Air....Pollution,....Air....Pollution-Nitrogen....Oxides,....Air....Pollution-Sulfur....85,....Antarctic-Environmental....Protocol,....Antarctic-Marine....Living....Resources,....Antarctic....Seals,....Antarctic....Treaty,....Biodiversity,....Climate....Change,....Climate....Change-Kyoto....Protocol,....Desertification,....Endangered....Species,....Environmental....Modification,....Hazardous....Wastes,....Law....of....the....Sea,....Marine....Dumping,....Ozone....Layer....Protection,....Ship....Pollution,....Tropical....Timber....83,....Wetlands,....Whaling....signed,....but....not....ratified:....Air....Pollution-Sulfur....94....Geography....-....note:....largest....country....in....the....world....in....terms....of....area....but....unfavorably....located....in....relation....to....major....sea....lanes....of....the....world;....despite....its....size,....much....of....the....country....lacks....proper....soils....and....climates....(either....too....cold....or....too....dry)....for....agriculture;....Mount....El'brus....is....Europe's....tallest....peak;....Lake....Baikal,....the....deepest....lake....in....the....world,....is....estimated....to....hold....one....fifth....of....the....world's....fresh....water....MILOSEVIC..retained..control..over..Serbia..and..eventually..became..president..of..the..FRY..in..1997In....January....2014,....Serbia's....EU....accession....talks....officially....opened,....and....as....of....March....2017,....Serbia....had....opened....eight....negotiating....chaptersThe...economy...relies...on...manufacturing...and...exports,...driven...largely...by...foreign...investment

Sat,...July...01,...2017...Hunting...Saracens...And...Modernists:...SavingIn....1998,....an....ethnic....Albanian....insurgency....in....the....formerly....autonomous....Serbian....province....of....Kosovo....provoked....a....Serbian....counterinsurgency....campaign....that....resulted....in....massacres....and....massive....expulsions....of....ethnic....Albanians....living....in....KosovoGeography...::...SERBIA...Background:...The...Kingdom...of...Serbs,...Croats,...and...Slovenes...was...formed...in...1918;...its...name...was...changed...to...Yugoslavia...in...1929Transportation...::...RUSSIA...The....Soviet....economy....and....society....stagnated....in....the....decades....following....Stalin’s....rule,....until....General....Secretary....Mikhail....GORBACHEV....(1985-91)....introduced....glasnost....(openness)....and....perestroika....(restructuring)....in....an....attempt....to....modernize....communism,....but....his....initiatives....inadvertently....released....forces....that....by....December....1991....splintered....the....USSR....into....Russia....and....14....other....independent....republics......Besser...leben...mit...Luther:...Martin...Luther

In...2015,...Serbia’s...GDP...was...27.5%...below...where...it...was...in...1989Economy....-....overview:....Serbia....has....a....transitional....economy....largely....dominated....by....market....forces,....but....the....state....sector....remains....significant....in....certain....areasPrime..Minister..Aleksandar..VUCIC,..has..promoted..an..ambitious..goal..of..Serbia..joining..the..EU..by..2020Following...economic...and...political...turmoil...during...President...Boris...YELTSIN's...term...(1991-99),...Russia...shifted...toward...a...centralized...authoritarian...state...under...the...leadership...of...President...Vladimir...PUTIN...(2000-2008,...2012-present)...in...which...the...regime...seeks...to...legitimize...its...rule...through...managed...elections,...populist...appeals,...a...foreign...policy...focused...on...enhancing...the...country's...geopolitical...influence,...and...commodity-based...economic...growthComments...Hearts...Remix...Comment...Don't...forget...that...insults,...racism,...etc.Other...serious...longer-term...challenges...include...an...inefficient...judicial...system,...high...levels...of...corruption,...and...an...aging...populationRepeated....devastating....defeats....of....the....Russian....army....in....World....War....I....led....to....widespread....rioting....in....the....major....cities....of....the....Russian....Empire....and....to....the....overthrow....in....1917....of....the....imperial....householdSerbia..subsequently..gave..notice..that..it..was..the..successor..state..to..the..union..of..Serbia..and..Montenegro

Energy...::...RUSSIA...Transnational....Issues....::....RUSSIA.....High...unemployment...and...stagnant...household...incomes...are...ongoing...political...and...economic...problemsGDP..(purchasing..power..parity):..$3.751..trillion..(2016..est.)..$3.774..trillion..(2015..est.)..$3.92..trillion..(2014..est.)..note:..data..are..in..2016..dollars..country..comparison..to..the..world:..7..GDP..(official..exchange..rate):..$1.268..trillion..(2016..est.)..GDP..-..real..growth..rate:..-0.6%..(2016..est.)..-3.7%..(2015..est.)..0.7%..(2014..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..200..GDP..-..per..capita..(PPP):..$26,100..(2016..est.)..$26,300..(2015..est.)..$27,300..(2014..est.)..note:..data..are..in..2016..dollars..country..comparison..to..the..world:..72..Gross..national..saving:..24.7%..of..GDP..(2016..est.)..23.8%..of..GDP..(2015..est.)..23.7%..of..GDP..(2014..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..54..GDP..-..composition,..by..end..use:..household..consumption:..55.8%..government..consumption:..19.9%..investment..in..fixed..capital:..21.6%..investment..in..inventories:..-3.2%..exports..of..goods..and..services:..25.8%..imports..of..goods..and..services:..-19.9%..(2016..est.)..GDP..-..composition,..by..sector..of..origin:..agriculture:..4.7%..industry:..33.1%..services:..62.2%..(2016..est.)..Agriculture..-..products:..grain,..sugar..beets,..sunflower..seeds,..vegetables,..fruits;..beef,..milk..Industries:..complete..range..of..mining..and..extractive..industries..producing..coal,..oil,..gas,..chemicals,..and..metals;..all..forms..of..machine..building..from..rolling..mills..to..high-performance..aircraft..and..space..vehicles;..defense..industries..(including..radar,..missile..production,..advanced..electronic..components),..shipbuilding;..road..and..rail..transportation..equipment;..communications..equipment;..agricultural..machinery,..tractors,..and..construction..equipment;..electric..power..generating..and..transmitting..equipment;..medical..and..scientific..instruments;..consumer..durables,..textiles,..foodstuffs,..handicrafts..Industrial..production..growth..rate:..0.7%..(2016..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..159..Labor..force:..76.9..million..(2016..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..8..Labor..force..-..by..occupation:..agriculture:..9.4%..industry:..27.6%..services:..63%..(2016..est.)..Unemployment..rate:..5.3%..(2016..est.)..5.8%..(2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..99..Population..below..poverty..line:..13.3%..(2015..est.)..Household..income..or..consumption..by..percentage..share:..lowest..10%:..2.3%..highest..10%:..32.2%..(2012..est.)..Distribution..of..family..income..-..Gini..index:..41.2..(2015)..41.9..(2013)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..53..Budget:..revenues:..$186.5..billion..expenditures:..$230.2..billion..(2016..est.)..Taxes..and..other..revenues:..14.7%..of..GDP..(2016..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..189..Budget..surplus..(+)..or..deficit..(-):..-3.5%..of..GDP..(2016..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..136..Public..debt:..13.7%..of..GDP..(2016..est.)..9.4%..of..GDP..(2015..est.)..note:..data..cover..general..government..debt,..and..includes..debt..instruments..issued..(or..owned)..by..government..entities..other..than..the..treasury;..the..data..include..treasury..debt..held..by..foreign..entities;..the..data..include..debt..issued..by..subnational..entities,..as..well..as..intra-governmental..debt;..intra-governmental..debt..consists..of..treasury..borrowings..from..surpluses..in..the..social..funds,..such..as..for..retirement,..medical..care,..and..unemployment,..debt..instruments..for..the..social..funds..are..not..sold..at..public..auctions..country..comparison..to..the..world:..175..Fiscal..year:..calendar..year..Inflation..rate..(consumer..prices):..5.8%..(2016..est.)..15.5%..(2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..195..Central..bank..discount..rate:..10%..(31..December..2016..est.)..11%..(03..August..2015)..note:..this..is..the..so-called..refinancing..rate,..but..in..Russia..banks..do..not..get..refinancing..at..this..rate;..this..is..a..reference..rate..used..primarily..for..fiscal..purposes..country..comparison..to..the..world:..19..Commercial..bank..prime..lending..rate:..12.7%..(31..December..2016..est.)..15.73%..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..61..Stock..of..narrow..money:..$199.7..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$151.5..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..23..Stock..of..broad..money:..$177.2..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$926.8..billion..(31..October..2014..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..19..Stock..of..domestic..credit:..$818.5..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$603.9..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..17..Market..value..of..publicly..traded..shares:..$635.9..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$393.2..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..$385.9..billion..(31..December..2014..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..25..Current..account..balance:..$22.2..billion..(2016..est.)..$69..billion..(2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..16..Exports:..$285.5..billion..(2016..est.)..$343.5..billion..(2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..19..Exports..-..commodities:..petroleum..and..petroleum..products,..natural..gas,..metals,..wood..and..wood..products,..chemicals,..and..a..wide..variety..of..civilian..and..military..manufactures..Exports..-..partners:..Netherlands..11.9%,..China..8.3%,..Germany..7.4%,..Italy..6.5%,..Turkey..5.6%,..Belarus..4.4%,..Japan..4.2%..(2015)..Imports:..$182.3..billion..(2016..est.)..$182.7..billion..(2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..24..Imports..-..commodities:..machinery,..vehicles,..pharmaceutical..products,..plastic,..semi-finished..metal..products,..meat,..fruits..and..nuts,..optical..and..medical..instruments,..iron,..steel..Imports..-..partners:..China..19.2%,..Germany..11.2%,..US..6.4%,..Belarus..4.8%,..Italy..4.6%..(2015)..Reserves..of..foreign..exchange..and..gold:..$365.5..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$368.4..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..9..Debt..-..external:..$514.8..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$520.2..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..22..Stock..of..direct..foreign..investment..-..at..home:..$348..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$342.9..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..21..Stock..of..direct..foreign..investment..-..abroad:..$359.3..billion..(31..December..2016..est.)..$336.3..billion..(31..December..2015..est.)..country..comparison..to..the..world:..20..Exchange..rates:..Russian..rubles..(RUB)..per..US..dollar..-..68.06..(2016..est.)..60.938..(2015..est.)..60.938..(2014..est.)..38.378..(2013..est.)..30.84..(2012..est.)..The..military..and..political..movement..headed..by..Josip..Broz.."TITO"..(Partisans)..took..full..control..of..Yugoslavia..when..their..domestic..rivals..and..the..occupiers..were..defeated..in..1945The..remaining..republics..of..Serbia..and..Montenegro..declared..a..new..Federal..Republic..of..Yugoslavia..(FRY)..in..April..1992..and..under..MILOSEVIC's..leadership,..Serbia..led..various..military..campaigns..to..unite..ethnic..Serbs..in..neighboring..republics..into..a.."Greater..Serbia."..These..actions..ultimately..failed..and,..after..international..intervention,..led..to..the..signing..of..the..Dayton..Peace..Accords..in..1995The..economy,..which..had..averaged..7%..growth..during..1998-2008..as..oil..prices..rose..rapidly,..has..seen..diminishing..growth..rates..since..then..due..to..the..exhaustion..of..Russia’s..commodity-based..growth..model 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